Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, affects about 9% of the world’s population. After the IDF Diabetes Atlas Ninth Edition 2019 there would be plenty 700 million diabetics worldwide by 2045. If we look at the cases that are never reported, it is almost a covert epidemic. Not only adults, but this disease affects children and adolescents alike.
India is only in second place after China with 77 million diabetics. Every 1 out of 6 people diagnosed with diabetes is an Indian. Global health spending on diabetes alone was $ 760 billion in 2019, nearly 10% of total global health spending. This article tries to understand this health threat that creeps into our lives every second.
Meaning of diabetes mellitus
In layman’s terms, diabetes mellitus simply refers to an increased level of sugar in the body. To be precise, it is a metabolic disorder in our body that affects its ability to process blood sugar, commonly known as blood sugar, and turn it into energy. Glucose is a very important part of our overall health. It powers our brain. When effectively broken down by our bodies, glucose provides energy for the cells that make up our tissues and organs. Diabetes interferes with the body’s ability to convert glucose into energy.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
This type of diabetes generally occurs in children and adolescents. It is considered an autoimmune disease. In simpler terms, this means that the beta cells produced by the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin, are mistakenly attacked and destroyed by the immune system. Because the body does not make insulin, the body cannot convert glucose into energy and the bloodstream is high in sugar.
It is also known as insulin dependent diabetes because of the need to inject insulin into the body from external sources using syringes, insulin pens that come with pre-filled cartridges and a thin needle, jet injectors, or even pumps.
Type 2 diabetes
Traditionally, this type of diabetes has affected adults, but recently it has also affected adolescents because of obesity. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas makes a certain amount of insulin, but that’s not enough to process all of our sugar intake. Therefore, the process of converting glucose into energy slows down, and there is an increase in the amount of sugar in the blood.
Must read:: Top 10 Yoga Asanas For Obesity!
The main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is the production of insulin. While in type 1 the body does not produce any insulin at all, in type 2 insulin production is insufficient to meet the body’s needs. About 90% of the people who have diabetes in the world have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is less fatal than type 1 diabetes. However, if left untreated for a long period of time, it can damage the eyes and kidneys.
A lesser known form of diabetes is called prediabetes. When blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes, the condition is called prediabetes. It serves as a warning for a person to take appropriate steps before it turns into a full blown disease. Prediabetes is generally reversible. In India, you are considered prediabetic if your fasting sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg / dl. Since prediabetes generally has no symptoms, the majority of cases are not reported.
This form of diabetes is associated with pregnancy and is usually reversible with appropriate treatment. It generally develops between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy and, if not handled properly, can increase the risk of complications during childbirth.
Types of tests
There are several tests available to confirm the existence of diabetes. A doctor may ask the patient to perform any of the tests they deem appropriate.
Type 2 diabetes
The HbA1c test is most commonly performed in type 2 diabetes. It measures the binding of glucose molecules to hemoglobin. This test result shows an averaged blood sugar level over a period of 3 months. There is no need to fast.
Must read:: Ayurvedic herbs for type 2 diabetes
Another test that is usually done to check for diabetes is the fasting plasma glucose test, which involves fasting for at least 8 hours before drawing a blood sample. If the result of this test is 126 mg / dL twice or more, type 2 diabetes is confirmed.
A blood sugar test after 2 hours of eating a meal or a very sweet drink is also done. If the result is more than 200 mg / dL, it is believed that the person has type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes
Identifying type 1 diabetes can be difficult. Any tests done for type 2 diabetes in this case will also be repeated in this case. Aside from that, the doctor may also recommend tests like C-peptide, which is a measure of a type of protein made by the pancreas. Low C-peptide levels in the test reports also indicate low insulin levels. The test to check for the presence of proteins that target and destroy insulin can also be done to confirm type 2 diabetes.
Cause of diabetes mellitus
A specific cause for type 1 and type 2 diabetes has not been established. However, doctors believe that genes play an important role in transmitting the disease from one generation to another. If your parents are diabetic, it is very likely that you will also develop the disease at some point in your life.
Must read:: 5 Dangerous Causes and Home Remedies for Diabetic Neuropathy
Another important factor that is believed to be the cause of type 2 is obesity. People weighing more than 20% above their required BMI are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, along with the other problems associated with it. In most cases, obesity is a major cause of developing insulin resistance, which increases blood sugar.
Why Indians Are More At Risk
According to the International Federation of Diabetes, approximately 77 million Indians have been diagnosed with diabetes. To do this, add the number of unreported cases and you would know the extent of the situation. Why are Indians so susceptible to this disease? The answer lies in our genetic disposition.
Research shows that Indians have higher levels of insulin resistance. This could be due to the adoption of modernization and urbanization in that part of society that passed from an agricultural to an industrialized one. The urban lifestyle has also kept us from physical activity.
Our traditional low-calorie diets have been replaced by high-calorie diets, especially in urban areas. Both gave us the gift of fat deposited on our waists and diabetes. Our sedentary lifestyle is a major contributor to the high priority of diabetes among urban Indians.
Early Signs Of Diabetes – When To See A Doctor?
Early detection helps control diabetes. If you experience any of the following symptoms, it is advisable to get tested as soon as possible:
- Increased urination
- Wounds take time to heal, and even minor cuts and injuries are slow to heal
- Weight loss for no other identifiable reason
- Excessive hunger and thirst
- Feeling tired or tired all the time.
Different types of diabetes treatment
Diabetes needs to be controlled as a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. In general, diabetes is a lifestyle disease. If the lifestyle is changed at an early stage, the outbreak of this disease, especially type 2, can be completely averted or at least postponed.
Medication: Insulin is an important part of treating type 1 diabetes. Since the body cannot produce insulin, it has to be injected externally. In the case of type 2 diabetes, non-insulin drugs are prescribed when lifestyle changes are unable to cope with them. You may also need to inject insulin at a later time.
Diet change: Eat the Eating right is necessary to control diabetes. Sugar, sweets, baked goods, pastries and cakes, foods made from all-purpose flour are a strict no. A low-carb, high-fiber diet is advisable. It is recommended to eat fruit in moderation instead of juices or diet sodas. Care should be taken not to eat anything sweet, even if it contains natural sugar in the morning on an empty stomach, as this can cause blood sugar levels to rise.
Physical activity: Obesity is another major cause of diabetes. Hence, shedding those extra pounds will definitely help in controlling this disease. Exercises, yoga, meditation should be part of the daily routine. Walking is an excellent exercise for dealing with diabetes. It is known that exercise controls blood sugar levels and makes our bodies more sensitive to insulin.
Must read:: 11 useful yoga asanas for controlling diabetes!
Prediabetes and gestational diabetes can be completely reversed with the help of lifestyle changes. Even type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be treated well with a combination of these. So what are you waiting for? Get up and be on your way! Adopt a Healthy Lifestyle Today !!